Over the last 20 years the critical nature of the man-in-the-loop has changed from simply manual dexterity and procedural operation to a state in which their decision making, cognitive abilities, data assimilation, communication skills, and attitude are all crucial. In addition the job structure of the personnel operationally involved with modern systems has diversified in direct proportion to the complexity of the technology. This has fueled the need for a formal approach.
The task of training can be broken down into a number of discrete components, each addressing a different part of the overall learning process. This breakdown is as follows:-
The role of training analysis is to build a formal bridge between the available design data and the training media and training objectives, in order to facilitate the transfer of training elements into the operational environment.
The training gap is assessed by a comparison between the goals and tasks undertaken by the individuals and the existing training.
There is a wide variety of training media that can be used, ranging from traditional lecture-based teaching to sophisticated simulators. Different media will be more or less appropriate for different activities. It is necessary to determine the most suitable and cost-effective training media for the different areas.
There have been many different approaches defined, however, the system approach to training has been the most successful.
Training Needs Analysis (TNA) is defined as the "Identification of training requirements and the most cost effective means of meeting those requirements".
A TNA should always be performed where a major new development in policy, equipment acquisition or procedures is deemed to have potential impact upon the current training regime.